The title of this submit is the title of my newest piece for Hoover’s Defining Concepts, printed August 13.
Right here’s one of many opening paragraphs:
Are these authors and commentators proper? What’s their proof? Extra essentially, what do the phrases “monopoly,” “market energy,” and “competitors” imply, and what monopolies or types of market energy ought to we fear about? Additionally, after we do fear about monopoly or market energy, what are the suitable insurance policies to cope with it? It seems that economists during the last 200 years have fastidiously thought of many of those points. Sadly, a few of their insights have been misplaced, and one foremost purpose is that a lot of those that fear about monopoly have a static, fairly than a dynamic, view of competitors.
However there are two main issues with that measure [the percent of revenues of the top 50 firms in an industry.] I’ll illustrate the primary one by highlighting an business referenced in Obama’s CEA report. A desk within the report exhibits that the highest 50 corporations within the second largest U.S. business, retail commerce, earned $1.56 trillion in income in 2012. Their share of income elevated from 25.7 % of business revenues in 1997 to 36.9 %, a rise of 11.2 proportion factors.
Did any main change in retail commerce occur between 1997 and 2012? Sure. It was known as Amazon. Earlier than Amazon grew to become vital, what sometimes mattered for you as a retail buyer was the quantity of competitors in your native market. So, if you happen to lived in San Francisco and needed a garden chair, you may go to Sears (bear in mind them?), Dwelling Depot, or your native ironmongery store. However after Amazon got here into being, you had one other main alternative: saving plenty of time touring from retailer to retailer and, as an alternative, sitting at your desk or kitchen desk, and even lounging in your outdated garden chair, and ordering from dwelling. Not solely did you save time but in addition the percentages are that you just received a cheaper price. Briefly, Amazon made the related marketplace for you way more aggressive. And it did that even whereas, at instances, wiping out native rivals.
Learn the complete factor.